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How to Work with a Food Scientist

How to Work with a Food Scientist

Written by Brian Chau, Principal Advisor at Chau Time

Hiring a food scientist or food product developer can be a daunting challenge. These are the people who transform your food idea into reality. Read more to better understand: how a food scientist within product development operates; how to use a project proposal as a tool to set expectations for your overall vision; and explore the options on how to best collaborate with a food scientist. 

Understand the Framework:

There are a lot of job titles for food scientists including: food technologist, product developer, food specialist, culinologist, culinary developer, formulator, or R&D scientist/chef. For simplicity, food scientist will imply any titles aforementioned. 

When looking for a food scientist, specify that you are looking for someone who can do product development from concept to commercialization. A food scientist with product development experience has the knowledge to help take your idea, create a prototype, and provide a formula that will be commercially viable. Some specialize in product development and not scale-up; that may be fine depending on your needs, but we will focus on a food scientist who can do both. A good food scientist should also be a good product manager, balancing different parameters that affect development from costs to scalability. Their end goal is to deliver a product formulation that is likely to be reproduced at scale while also being food safe. 

What a food scientist will help you do:

  • Make suggestions regarding how to improve the product and provide critical feedback in a very technical and structured approach
  • Tell you that a request is outside the bounds of regulations, food safety, or even scientific principles
  • Assist in the development process
  • Work with an existing manufacturing line

What a food scientist will NOT help you do:

  • Tell you how to reverse engineer intellectual property that a competitor took years to develop
  • Tell you the best flavor (as that is often very subjective and the food scientist may not fit your target audience)
  • Make the final decisions for you and your brand
  • Engineer new equipment for scaling

The first step in working with a food scientist is to co-create a project proposal to set clear expectations and understand how to go through the product development process.

The Project Proposal; Setting Expectations: 

Any good food scientist should best work within the framework you provide them. You provide the guardrails and expectations for your brand. What guides the conversation is understanding that you provide a range of values or priorities that will allow the food scientist to help you better develop the product or inform you about the issues you are to expect on the feasibility of your request. Here is a list of parameters to discuss:

Commercialization: 

Arguably one of the most crucial parameters, and is what differentiates a food scientist from a chef. How you scale up products through equipment is based on your approach and your strategy. Whether you are going to work out of a commercial kitchen or start with a contract manufacturer, a food scientist can guide you through the process. Commercialization goals should often be the first point of discussion as a food scientist will better understand how to scale the product and provide prototypes that have mimicked the commercial processes.

Product Attributes: 

Let the food scientist understand your branding by describing what kind of certifications you expect to have on your package: organic, non-GMO, Kosher, Halal, keto-friendly, high in fiber, no trans-fat, etc. What kind of ingredients do you accept or do not accept and why do you think it is important to the brand?

Packaging: 

Let the food scientist know what is your serving size, number of servings per package, and what type of package you plan to use. If you do not know these parameters, look at analogs in the market and make your best assumption.

Nutritional: 

Although this parameter overlaps with branding, the nutrition panel requires special attention. Offer a range of values for your macronutrients (ex: 8-10 grams of protein per serving size.) Based on your packaging, you can determine if you want vertical, horizontal, or linear labels. Specific nutrition claims and allergen statements will be duly noted.

Cost: 

Your cost of goods sold is important. You want to allow for a range of values here too; be specific on what you are including in your cost of goods sold by mentioning if you are referring to the case, the individual unit, or by the pallet. Look at whether you are referencing minimum order quantity or tiered pricing.

Sensory: 

Determine how many stock keeping units, what flavors, an ideal texture, and ideal look and/or color.

Shelf Life: 

Your suggestions will be an ideal range. The food scientist can tell you what to realistically expect or at least suggest a better range. Be specific on what you are looking for as there are different types of shelf-life studies between sensory, microbiological, and physical and/or chemical. 

Timeline: 

Depending on the product and what stage your business is in; you can have a quick turnaround time or anywhere between 6 and 9 months. Food scientists understand their own timelines and can either fulfill your request or tell you how reasonable or not the timeline is. 

Food scientists are not magicians. They cannot read your mind nor have a product appear out of nowhere. Product development takes time, iteration, and flexibility in making adjustments. The range of values will allow for flexibility in the development process. You don’t want to make the development so difficult that the process stalls out and your launch plans get impacted. Setting expectations allows for dialogue on what is feasible within a timely and structured manner; set priorities between parameters to make decision making easier.

When developing your project proposal, you want to understand what your needs and wants are in the negotiation table as well as the needs and wants of the prospective food scientist. You want to have an idea of how to best communicate with the food scientist and assess if there is synergy with the food scientist. Some food scientists work on a per project proposal which works out best for their project management. Others work on an hourly basis which can be valuable for quick turnaround times. Some food scientists might be open to the idea of equity and turning into a long-time partner of your organization. At the end of the day, a food scientist is a person with a particular skill set of translating science and technology of food and beverage into a commercially viable, food safe, and delicious product. Each food scientist operates under rigorous training in the sciences, but they also have their own personalities that may or may not work well with your brand. Honestly, the same principle applies to anyone you want to hire. Always be open to exploring all options before making a final decision. 

The process of working with a food scientist takes time. In building out these relationships by setting expectations and building dialogue, the path to developing your product will be less stressful. The project proposal is a tool to lay the foundation of how to work with the prospective food scientist. Remember that food scientists are people too and they cannot read your mind; they don’t understand your vision as much as you do and they have their own personalities. By understanding how they operate, you can better manage how to leverage their expertise to grow your business. You can save time in knowing you have someone who can translate the technical information for you to make a final decision. Most importantly, you managed to de-risk a critical component of your business.

Brian Chau: Food Scientist, Fungal Fanatic, and Food Systems Analyst at Chau Time. Brian is the Principal Advisor at Chau Time, his own consultation firm. He is the Co-founder of MycoKind, a food biotech company. He also sits as an advisor to food tech companies. He is working on his first book, How to Work with a Food Scientist, to help founders understand a food scientist’s capabilities and improve the understanding of how to navigate the technical world of food and beverage consumer packaged goods.

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ParityFactory

What exactly does ParityFactory do?  

ParityFactory is a food specific warehouse management (WMS) and production management system. The software is a tool for food and beverage manufacturers to manage the physical operations of their plant, and further, to automate the data management process. This is done through the use of a relatively common technology, although one that is still surprisingly underutilized in the food space: scanning and barcoding. Traditionally, food and beverage manufacturers have managed their tracing data and inventory balances with paper or spreadsheets.  

In a ParityFactory plant, raw materials are tagged with a barcode the moment they enter the facility. With just a simple barcode, the system can track the material at every step of production, whether it’s moved to storage, processed into finished goods, or shipped out. This generates a real-time view of all the inventory on hand, a comprehensive tracing chain, and makes detailed, accurate production planning possible. Customers find they have dramatically reduced inventory variances and a more efficient manufacturing process. 

History 

ParityFactory was founded in Seattle, WA over 30 years ago, but if you took a look at the company today you’d never know it. Despite its long history in food and beverage, the company has more the attitude of a new and growing software firm, and that’s because the last few years have been full of huge changes for the once tiny business. 

Decades ago, the Seattle-based company designed accounting systems for Alaskan fish processors. However, as Tyler Marshall, President at ParityFactory says, “Working in the food and beverage space for so long, we came to realize that there were plenty of companies that were doing accounting well, but very few who offered a comprehensive solution for managing inventory and tracing.” With this realization, the company pivoted towards designing solutions to manage the physical operations on the plant floor roughly 7 years ago. The result was their current offering and namesake of the organization, ParityFactory. 

Growth and Future Plans 

The company’s current CEO, Sean Clemmons, took his position in January 2019 and since then the company has accelerated its growth and added new clients across North America. That growth has brought opportunities to invest in the creation of new and exciting solutions to problems faced in the food and beverage industry. During the two years under Sean’s leadership, ParityFactory has released several extensions to its core platform.  

In 2020 alone, numerous new products have been launched under the ParityFactory brand, including a suite of tools aimed to help manufacturers who work directly with growers receive their product in bulk, automate payment calculation, and get quicker insight into grading and quality data. The company released their latest offering, the ParityFactory inventory Portal, in late 2020. Designed for those who run third-party logistics operations, the Inventory Portal allows users to provide their clients direct access into how much inventory they have stored, with data automatically pulled from the ParityFactory core platform. 

Investment into new products is slated to continue well into 2021 and beyond, as Sean Clemmons puts it, “Many of the challenges processors face are consistent across the industry, but every operation is a little different. With each new client we sign, we discover new problems to solve and new possibilities for innovation.” 
For more information on the ParityFactory platform, visit their website at www.parityfactory.com or reach out to parityfactory@paritycorp.com

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Industry Update: FDA Announces FSMA Food Traceability Proposed Rule

Written by Jon Kimble, Originally Published in Industry Updates

On September 21, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration announced the release of a draft rule for the food industry, “Requirements for Additional Traceability Records for Certain Foods” (also referred to as the Food Traceability Proposed Rule). This is one of the last remaining elements of the FDA’s Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), assigned to the FDA by congressional mandate. This draft rule requires that the FDA implement additional traceability expectations for the food industry based on risk.  This new rule is being billed by the FDA as part of its overall “Blueprint for the New Era of Smarter Food Safety”, which outlines several key elements, including enhanced traceability.

Our overall impression is that our customers, such as yourself, are already largely in compliance with the requirements as they’re currently written, perhaps with just a few minor gaps. The FDA has provided more information about the rule on their website. 

7 Key Takeaways Regarding This Rule:

  1. This is a draft rule. Now is the time to submit any feedback or concerns.
  2. Its scope is limited.  It pertains specifically to those who manufacture, process, pack, or hold specific types of foods on the FDA’s “Food Traceability List” (FTL).
  3. It requires tracking specific activities. The FDA refers to these as “Critical Tracking Events” (CTEs), and they include: growing, receiving, transforming, creating, and shipping.
  4. It requires tracking specific data. The FDA calls these “Key Data Elements” (KDEs), and they must be tracked for each Critical Tracking Event.  They include information such as grower location identifier; lot numbers and other traceability identifiers; business names, numbers, and points of contact; quantities and units of measure; and other key elements.
  5. It requires farms to communicate some basic information to customers. This includes location identifiers for the growing area and each location the product was processed or stored at, including business names and key contacts.
  6. The record format is flexible. Under the rule, the FDA allows either paper or electronic records.  However, it’s worth noting that, especially for finished companies who produce ready-to-eat foods, the FDA has made it clear that there is a preference for electronic records, where necessary to facilitate traceability (see the next requirement).
  7. Records must be readily available. The FDA requires that companies be able to provide a sortable electronic spreadsheet to the FDA containing any affected products, within 24 hours of any FDA request, to assist in the investigation of any outbreak or recall. 

If you’d like a member of our team to help you conduct an assessment of your company’s traceability programs, we’re ready to assist you, virtually or on-site! Reach out to us at foodsafety@safefoodalliance.com.

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Forage Kitchen – Local Food Economy Evolving in a Global Epidemic

Written by Callie Waldman, Forage Kitchen

First Friday at Forage Kitchen in Oakland, Calif., Friday, Oct. 5, 2018. Photo by Alison Yin/Alison Yin Photography

INTRO

Forage Kitchen is a commissary and shared incubator kitchen in the heart of Uptown Oakland. Nestled amongst retail locations and maker warehouses, we exist to support the local food economy by supporting its producers. Our community members find this support through our physical shared kitchen space, business support & promotional help, and through our network of like-minded food business owners. We’re a lot of other things as well. Beyond just our commissary, we’re also a small batch copacking facility as well as an event space for both private bookings and community gatherings.  Attached to our kitchen we have a small cafe that houses rotating up-and-coming restaurants, offering low rent to minimize risk as they transition towards moving into their own permanent space. 

HISTORY

Though we officially opened our doors in 2016, leading up to that moment took years of thoughtful decisions and physical build-out.  In 2012, cousins and co-founders Iso Rabins and Matt Johansen began their journey in building Forage inspired by their own experience as food entrepreneurs. Their driving motivation was to create an experience and a kitchen for others that they wished they’d had themselves while navigating the industry. 

Iso, having worked in shared kitchens for years while hosting his Wild Kitchen underground dinners, had seen all the ways shared spaces fell short, and the destructive impact that had on the community. This experience was motivation enough to want to create something better. Iso’s focus had always been food and food makers; launching Forage Kitchen just felt like the right next step.  

If you ask the cousins, Iso will tell you that getting Matt onboard took some courting.  Matt’s expertise in business management, his previous partnership in opening SF’s still-thriving Hayes Valley Biergarten, and his effortless knack for connecting with just about anyone, balanced Iso’s vision and made him the perfect co-founder.  Iso knew he needed Matt onboard and over a handful of beers and long talks at family reunions, the motivation and the dream was mutual. 

Once established and open, Iso and Matt needed someone to flesh out programming and act as a direct line of support for the growing community, and so they introduced a third partner, Callie Waldman, to run daily operations. Callie also came from extensive food industry experience but also brought with her the relationship building component, having overseen employee engagement and company culture during the early stages of Imperfect Foods. Focused on honesty, communication and trust, this small but mighty trio oversees all aspects of the business.  

STRUCTURE

When operating at full capacity, Forage congruently runs four arms of business: membership, small batch co-packing, events, and a cafe. Each functions as an integral piece of the puzzle, harmoniously interwoven to support our community at a multitude of crossroads.

Membership

Our primary focus and the reason Forage exists, is to support our members. Each of our members own and operate their own small food business and have 24/7 access to our kitchen through reserving tables using our online booking system. Pricing is tiered and ranges from $21-28 per hour depending on frequency. Additionally, we offer an $18 per hour rate between 10pm-6am to accommodate those chefs who prefer off-peak schedules.  Once in the kitchen, members have equal access to our industrial equipment as well as the option to rent storage depending on their needs. Folks are surprised to hear that we typically fluctuate between 40-50 memberships at a time, however the variety of scheduling needs means that we hardly see conflicts in booking or overcrowding. Our members range from pastry chefs to soul food caterers, bagel producers to homemade pickle and boutique sauce companies. A vast majority are women-owned. The kitchen is equipped with a gamut of industrial equipment in order to accommodate many types of businesses. We have grills and deep fryers, 4 convection ovens, a total of 12 burners, a 30qt standup mixer, and an entire rack of smallware equipment available.  

Small Batch Copacking

Through our small batch copacking program, we lay out a pathway for businesses to grow with us. Once companies are a little further along, this program enables food producers to scale even bigger, while we take care of everything operationally from sourcing ingredients to label compliance to packaging.  For small scale food producers, outsourcing production allows for their time and energy to focus on sales and marketing so that they can get one step closer towards their dream of large scale distribution. We’ve worked with a wide variety of clients but our areas of expertise mainly focus on bone broth, cookies, sauces and spice blends.  

Events

One of the joys of running Forage is to foster our growing community. We find significance in this not just among our members, but within the greater community of Oakland. Our central location and spacious outdoor area makes Forage ideal for bringing people together. We’re a short walking distance from bars, cafes, and venues in every direction, and BART is just a 10 minute walk down the street, making us accessible to the rest of the Bay.  Outside of the current covid circumstances, our summer calendar is typically stacked with all kinds of events. We host weddings and rehearsal dinners, holiday parties and cooking classes, birthdays and anniversaries. In the warmer seasons we offer monthly outdoor movie nights and we partner with Sofar Sounds, hosting regular live music nights. Every First Friday of the month, we open our doors once again and participate in the city of Oakland’s monthly First Friday event where our members are encouraged to set up vendor tents and sell their food; an excellent opportunity for their own exposure and testing out the market. 

Cafe

Connected to the kitchen and facing the street, our cafe serves as a rotating space for new restaurants to launch their temporary home and gain traction as they test menu concepts, hire staff, and work out operational kinks before moving into their permanent retail location. Some of these restaurants include:  Smokin Woods BBQ, World Famous Hotboys, and Shawarmaji. Regardless of who’s serving food, patrons can enjoy patio seating and a cold, local beer on tap. 

HOW WE FOSTER INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Under most circumstances, the production and sales of food in California requires the use of a certified commissary kitchen. At the most basic level, this is what we provide. In addition to that, there’s a lengthy list of permits and licences that producers need to apply for, some which come from the county, others which come from the city or state. There’s a lot of red tape and often, even knowing where to begin with the administrative side of this industry can be daunting enough to cause roadblocks. This is again where we come in. As part of our onboarding service and at no extra charge, we offer additional support with new members by identifying and helping complete all the applications they need. 

Undeniably, our biggest avenue of support exists through our active community. It’s inspiring to see members helping one another as some have been in the industry for decades, while others are stepping foot into a commercial kitchen for their very first time. We’ve seen collaborations emerge, like Gourmet Puff (a Nigerian doughnut company) popping up with Shawarmaji (a Jordanian Shawarma restaurant). Internally, we use slack as a way to make sure all members can easily connect with one another and we have a couple channels specifically intended for companies to post things like kickstarter campaigns, new product launches, or simply to spread the word that they’re hiring. In the last few months we also set up a little shelf in our cafe where patrons can purchase shelf staple items, all made at Forage. We sell products like The Final Sauce, Goldi’s Spice Blends, and Claudine Hot Sauce.  In this sense, we find ways to interweave the various components of Forage such that our members’ businesses are amplified. 

CURRENTLY

Since the pandemic began affecting California in mid March, It’s no secret that small food businesses have suffered. As event cancellations soared and remote work within the bay area tech scene became status quo, most of the catering companies that worked out of Forage suddenly had nothing to cook for.  In an effort to get creative, we worked with members to develop a ghost kitchen model, offering our space as a pickup site for any catering companies willing or able to shift into strictly pickup & delivery. We’ve seen several companies successfully make the switch, however with the exorbitant percentage that corporate delivery platforms take from each ticket item, relying strictly on the apps is hardly feasible. In this vein, we’re huge proponents of encouraging customers to pick up food directly from the restaurant whenever possible.

FUTURE

Though business has been undeniably slow for the first several months, our kitchen remains open, 24/7 as it’s always been. And, as it’s become increasingly clear that we’re in this for the indeterminable long haul, we’re starting to see some shifts. We’ve started hearing from folks who’ve completely changed direction to make ends meet; A previously touring musician who decided to bottle and sell chili oil; A furloughed Pastry Chef who shifted her focus to participate in a national bake sale, benefiting the Black Lives Matter movement. When outdoor dining opened in Oakland, that enabled us to once again capitalize on our outdoor space after months of it laying dormant. We replaced our large picnic tables with wine barrel seating designed to fit 2-4 people instead of 8-10. Our cafe extended its hours, and we folded in a Happy Hour to encourage customers to stay and have a drink rather than just taking their food to go. 

In all honesty it’s hard to say exactly when we’ll be operating at full capacity again, or what that will even look like as it’s a constant moving target. That said, we’re optimistic. We’re seeing the beginnings of private event inquiries for 2021, and we’re also starting to talk about hosting small, distanced gatherings. Additionally, we’re working on launching our own cafe concept in the fall of 2020, focused on maximizing our outdoor space. While uncertainty is always the case, covid has been an abrupt and potent awakening to this truth and so we move forward with flexibility, creativity and patience; committed now more than ever, to offer a space and a community that supports our local food economy. 

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Contents of a Good HACCP Plan & Manual

Written by Safe Food Alliance Team
Originally Published in FOOD SAFETY, HACCP, STARTER SERIES

In today’s food manufacturing environment, basic food safety principles are no longer enough to meet customer and regulatory requirements. The rules have changed, in large part due to the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). In addition to new laws from legislators, the standards and demands of customers now far surpass regulatory requirements. What this means is there is now an expectation to not only master Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) but to go one step further and become Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) certified. To gain certification with any of these programs, you need to start in the same place. You start with a HACCP plan.

12 Steps to a Good HACCP Plan

When building out your HACCP plan, follow this specific methodology involving 12 steps. If you are having trouble, just reach out to your friendly neighborhood Safe Food Alliance team.

One thing to remember as you build out your plan – a HACCP Plan is a living document, and as such, should be revisited often as your processes change, your company grows, and you discover better ways to produce your product. Now that we have that covered, let’s begin.

1. Assemble the HACCP Team

Your plan will typically include a table where all the names of the HACCP Team members are written and signed, and the team leader is clearly designated. The team functions best when it’s highly cross-functional and includes members of various departments such as sanitation, maintenance, production, and quality. It’s essential to have these varied perspectives and background knowledge. 

In this section, you should include a brief description of each member’s current position, background, and experience. You’ll also need to have a copy of a HACCP formal training certificate for the HACCP coordinator, from an accredited two-day HACCP course.  There should be some sort of documented HACCP training for the rest of the team as well, whether conducted internally or by someone like us. The more knowledgeable the team, the better the plan will be.

2. Describe the Product

This section should include a full description of each product or family of products within the scope of the plan. Product descriptions should consist of details that impact the food safety of the product, including (as applicable):

  • the recipe or formulation
  • the packing materials and any other information such as the modified atmosphere
  • the conditions in which the product is to be stored (e.g., temperature, light, humidity)
  • the shelf life
  • distribution conditions
  • any potential for abuse in the distribution chain or by consumers, which may put the product at risk.

The better you define the product before starting the hazard analysis, the more thorough the review will be.

3. Identify the Intended Use

The intended use is based on the usual consumption of the commodity by the final consumer or user. Again, defining intended use helps ensure a more thorough hazard analysis later. This section includes both your company’s intended purpose based on product design, as well as potential other applications. The more you know your consumers, the better you can take care of them. A classic example, in this case, is cookie dough: it’s a product you typically cook before consumption, but in some cases, it’s eaten raw. For this reason, several companies have had recalls on their cookie dough due to consumer illness.

4. Construct the Flow Diagram

The process flow diagram must be clear and detailed to describe all process steps. Use this diagram to help ensure the hazard analysis is thorough and as a visual reference as your team considers potential hazards to the consumer. The flow diagram must include every process step that occurs on-site, from the very beginning (e.g., receiving and preparing ingredients, storing packing materials, etc.) to the very end (shipping, warehousing, etc.) The clearer the diagram is to the viewer, the easier to understand the process. Others may also use the table during site visits (e.g., customers, auditors, consultants, regulatory officials). Hence, it’s wise to design it in a way that it’s relatively clear to others who don’t know the process as well as you do.

5. On-Site Verification of the Flow Diagram

On-site verification of the diagram helps ensure its accuracy.  Again, the purpose of this is primarily to ensure a thorough hazard analysis. The site will need to provide proof that the HACCP Team has verified the flow diagram.  Some companies like to keep the first version of the diagram with hand-written notes on it, indicating changes made and initialed and dated by the participants. Ultimately, however, proof of the verification is best done with a final, updated copy that is signed; or meeting minutes indicating approval of the final version and signatures of participants.

6. Conduct a Hazard Analysis

The hazard analysis is part of the plan that typically takes the most time to review and update. Here the team collects and examines all relevant data to the product’s safety, including process performance, product defects, customer complaints, results of internal and third-party audits, and various other relevant information.  The team must take the proper time to conduct a thorough analysis.

A Hazard analysis can vary in format, but needs to include these common elements:

  • List of all process steps and ingredients
  • Identification of potential hazards
  • Assessment of each hazard, with consideration of both severity and likelihood
  • Identification of ‘significant’ hazards
  • Justification of the assessment (detailed explanation as to the team’s reasoning)
  • Identification of appropriate controls for each hazard
  • Now, under FSMA, the identification of any Preventive Controls as well. For more information on this subject, take a look at this article. For training, refer to the PCQI course.

7. Determine Critical Control Points (CCP’s)

This one is a simple concept. Based on the hazard analysis described above, you can quickly identify all significant hazards and CCPs. Critical Control Points are those essential steps designed to control a specific hazard so that the product will be safe to consume. The team should use a decision tree like this one when determining CCPs.

8. Establish Critical Limits for Each CCP

A critical limit is a critical control point’s “go/no go” or “acceptable/unacceptable” criteria.  For some processes, such as metal detection, it is as simple as testing with certified metal test pieces to ensure proper function. For other types of CCPs, it can be much more complex and include parameters such as temperature, humidity, product viscosity, or chemical concentration. All these variables and values have to be clearly defined, including both lower and upper limits, as applicable.

Documents related to the process and relevant sources used to establish the critical limits must be available to support the limits. These documents could be regulatory standards, guidelines, internal or third-party validation, experimental results, literature surveys, and expert guidance. The stricter the validated limits, the higher the potential efficacy.

9. Establish a Monitoring System

This step is where we define the monitoring method for each CCP.  Monitoring is how we ensure the process has met the critical limit, so the product is safe.  The monitoring procedure should contain the following:

  • What will you monitor?
  • How often shall it be monitored?
  • Who is responsible for performing the task?
  • What instruments will you use?
  • How will you monitor? (method)

The clearer the instructions, the fewer chances of failure.

10. Establish Corrective Actions

Each CCP is required to have predetermined and documented corrective actions for deviations that may occur. The corrective actions plan should comprise at least the following elements: the responsibility for each action, disposition of the non-complying product, the correction of the cause of failure, and recording the event. Keep records of activities readily available. If you need help with conducting root cause analysis for your corrective actions, check out our quick root cause analysis course.

11. Establish Verification Procedures

Much of the discussion in our HACCP courses end up centering around how to conduct verification in the context of HACCP properly.  Verification procedures should be activities designed to confirm that the plan is: 1) being followed; 2) effective for its intended use, and 3) adequately maintained. We are looking for defined procedures here, indicating how we conduct routine verification activities like the sign-off of the CCP monitoring records, as well as how you complete the less-frequent validation. The more exhaustive the verification is, the more confident we can be of the plan.  For more on verification, take a look at our article “The 6th Principle of HACCP: Verification”.

12. Establish Documentation and Record-keeping

This final step includes establishing both record-keeping processes and the company’s documentation system (establishing defined procedures, the company’s methods of document control, etc.). Consider:

  • How will you document your system?
  • What should you include?
  • Who is responsible for doing it?
  • How long are you keeping records? Where are you saving them?
  • Who needs to have access to what documents and how are documents controlled?

A better-documented plan helps ensure better execution.

As you may realize by now, developing and documenting an effective HACCP plan is not an easy task. Training on the methodology, experience, and technical elements are essential aspects of effective HACCP Plan implementation. If you need guidance with training or consultation, Safe Food Alliance is here to help.

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Digital Traceability: Reducing Risks and Finding Efficiencies

Written by Alex Lewis, Parity Factory Corp.

The ongoing crisis has shed light on the need for innovation in the food space, even in the most fundamental processes.

If someone were to ask you which industries were most important to our daily lives, what would you say? Along with things like communications, construction, and clothing, one of the first things that likely comes to mind is also one of the most basic: food. The agricultural and food processing industries provide for our most key needs and enables our continued growth. It is unlikely anyone would argue against the importance of the food and beverage industry to our society, however 2020 has brought us a loud and clear reminder of just how crucial it is, in the form of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

In just a few short months, food and beverage manufacturers saw demand increases that haven’t been seen in a lifetime. At the time of writing, sectors of the food industry have experienced spikes in volume ranging from 32% in milk, 30-47% across the snack sector, and a staggering 77% increase in demand for meat, and this trend holds true for nearly every vertical within the industry.

The stay-at-home orders announced by most governments have sent consumers rushing to the store, clearing shelves and placing new strain on food and beverage processors. As they struggle to keep up with their order volume, many manufacturers are looking for new ways to improve their efficiency and reduce their liabilities. As it turns out, one of the most effective methods may also be the simplest: digitizing their lot tracing.

What is digital lot tracing?

All food and beverage manufacturers track their lots. In fact, it is one of the basic requirements for running a food processing business, with the specific standards and protocols defined at the federal level by organizations such as the FDA. By requiring tracking of all material that is involved in making a product, down to the packaging used, it ensures that recalls can be performed swiftly and protects the health of the public. Manufacturers manage their tracing using a variety of methods, from pen and paper, to Microsoft Excel, to fully integrated traceability software, with many using a combination of methods. Digital lot tracing simply means that a company is capturing and managing their tracing data on a digital platform, often integrating scanning and barcoding into the process. This approach has a drastically lower error rate than more traditional methods and tends to be significantly more efficient.

Despite tracing being a common daily task that all processors contend with, there has been surprisingly little momentum towards automated lot tracing in food. By some metrics, only 1 in 5 operations have fully automated their lot data capture, with a bit more having partially implemented the process. The food industry has always been slow to adopt new processes, but as demand and competition skyrockets, many are finally feeling the need for an upgrade.

The risks of a recall

Executing recalls, specifically executing them quickly and efficiently, is one of the biggest challenges that food and beverage manufacturers face. Under current FDA guidelines, food and beverage processors need to be able to perform a recall within four hours. Many of the major retailers demand even more of their suppliers; if you want your product on the shelves in a Walmart or Costco, you must be able to perform the same process in as little as two hours. The unfortunate reality is that for processors tracing on paper, particularly those producing at scale, these targets are difficult to hit. Also, the human element involved in manual tracing can allow errors to find their way into data, and this has become especially true for those who are dramatically increasing their throughput to keep up with new demand caused by COVID-19. Without true, reliable data, a recall can quickly go from difficult to impossible.

The consequences of a botched recall can be dire: the average recall costs a manufacturer $10 million, not including possible fines from regulators, or losing the aforementioned Walmart or Costco contract. One of the biggest losses is one that may not be immediately obvious: consumer confidence. Over half of consumers will quit purchasing a product once it has been recalled, and studies have shown that a company’s stock price will typically drop as much as 22% following a major recall. Once that confidence is gone, it can take months or even years to get it back, if it can be regained at all.

All these problems can be mitigated, if not completely prevented, through digital lot tracing. With a capable solution in place, recall times can be measured in minutes, not hours, as a few quick searches replaces shuffling through endless forms to find the lot in question (if it was recorded correctly at all). This guarantees compliance with even the most demanding of rules and regulations and eliminates all fear when inspectors and auditors show up for routine recall tests. In addition, the ability to execute a speedy yet thorough recall when problems arise minimizes the risk to both consumers, and the manufacturer’s reputation. The bottom line: most food manufacturers are going to face a recall at some point. It is crucial to have the systems in place to react appropriately when that time comes.

How does it increase efficiency?

Due to the huge importance of lot tracing, manufacturers using manual systems often have some of their most competent and experienced employees devoted to the task. Even if these staff would be better suited to other areas, it’s just not worth taking the risk of assigning less experienced employees to the job. Digital lot tracing solves this by drastically simplifying the tracing process. Scanning a barcode and letting software do the rest is far quicker, easier, and less error-prone than meticulously creating and tracking hundreds of lot codes by hand. Meaning that you end up spending less time on tracing, and therefore less money, while winding up with data that is significantly more reliable. This both frees up an operation’s most capable employees to pursue new opportunities and allows anyone in the operation to take part in the tracing process. New employees can be trained and onboarded quickly, which is particularly useful for processors hiring huge amounts of new labor in the wake of COVID-19. 

All of this allows for greatly increased flexibility when it comes to staffing, and as COVID-19 turns the industry on its head the value of that flexibility has become crystal clear. While many of us have had the luxury to transition into working from home, that’s just not an option for many working in the food space. When employees are unable to attend work, for example if they are sick, someone else must step in. This can be a major threat to efficiency when the few people in your operation qualified to handle lot tracking are missing. In dealing with turnover and staff redistribution, there’s tangible benefit to having a system that allows employees to be effective, regardless of their experience level. 

For those looking to digitize their lot tracing, there is no shortage of solutions to accomplish that task. However, a sufficiently robust solution should go beyond just traceability. If you are tracking each lot as it moves through your facility, it creates great possibility to capture additional data such as yields, storage locations, and quality information. In this way, digital lot tracing can be viewed as a foundation on which to build even more extensive efficiency improvements. These additional features are some of the most important considerations for any manufacturer to make when choosing between available systems.

Preparing for an uncertain future

COVID-19 has proven that swift, unpredictable changes can happen in any industry, even one as foundational as food and beverage. With new issues such as shifting demographics, climate change, and the variable nature of trade on the horizon, it is likely that changes will become more frequent and even the smallest efficiencies will be essential to thrive.

Customer consciousness is also changing rapidly, and businesses that want to stay competitive have no choice but to change with it. As consumers and regulators demand ever more transparency and accountability from the food industry, reliable tracing data is becoming ever more crucial.

Manufacturers will undoubtedly rise to these new challenges in the future, just as they are rising to the challenges of today. And along the way, many will find a comprehensive digital lot tracing system to be one of their most valuable tools. 

Sources/Further Reading:

Acorn Surfaces & Treatments
for Concrete Restoration Products and Services

Breaux, Randy. “COVID-19 Shows the Need for Automation.” Foodprocessing.com, Food Processing Magazine, 2020, http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2020/power-lunch-covid-19-shows-the-need-for-automation/. 

Deloitte. Recall Execution Effectiveness: Collaborative Approaches to Improving Consumer Safety and Confidence. 2010.

Demetrekakes, Pam. “How the Coronavirus Is Affecting Food Processing.” Foodprocessing.com, Food Processing Magazine, 2020, http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2020/how-the-coronavirus-is-affecting-food-processing/.

Lelieveld, H. L. M. Hygiene in Food Processing. Woodhead, 2017.

Stier, Richard F. “How Food Processors Can Create a Plan for Traceability and Recalls.” Food Engineering RSS, Food Engineering, 11 May 2020, www.foodengineeringmag.com/articles/98026-how-food-processors-can-create-a-plan-for-traceability-and-recalls.

Torero, Maximo. “How to Stop a Looming Food Crisis.” Foreign Policy, 14 Apr. 2020, foreignpolicy.com/2020/04/14/how-to-stop-food-crisis-coronavirus-economy-trade/.