Written by Tara Sweeney
The COVID-19 virus is forcing businesses in critical industries, like food processing and manufacturing, to make many changes very quickly. Closures and new operating procedures are popping up throughout all of commerce, and new information is constantly emerging. Updated versions of this article will be available through our website. This article contains current COVID-19 information that will help you and your company adapt to this shifting business landscape. To help you adapt to the temporary, new normal created by the COVID-19 outbreak, this article contains the following:
- WHO Symptoms for COVID-19
- If You Contract COVID-19
- Facts About COVID-19 that the CDC is Emphasizing
- FEMA Factchecks
- How COVID-19 Could Affect Workplaces
- Jobs and Exposure Risk
- Federal Critical Infrastructure Sectors
- Food & Agriculture
- The Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA)
- Assistance for Small Businesses During the Outbreak
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that spreads from person to person through close contact (within 6 feet) and respiratory droplets from an infected person through coughing or sneezing. The first US case was reported on January 21, 2020.
It is essential to understand that the COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. It is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. However, people who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death. The WHO has outlined what the typical symptoms are, along with additional, less common symptoms.
Common Symptoms Include:
- dry cough
Other Symptoms Include:
- shortness of breath
- aches and pains
- sore throat
- and very few people will report diarrhoea, nausea or a runny nose.
Lowering your chances of contracting Covid-19 is simple: avoiding contact with persons who are sick; avoiding touching your face (eyes, nose, mouth); washing your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. However, the CDC has outlined steps to take if you do contract COVID-19 despite taking precautions.
If you contract COVID-19:
- People with mild symptoms who are otherwise healthy should self-isolate and contact their medical provider or a COVID-19 information line for advice on testing and referral.
- People with fever, cough or difficulty breathing should call their doctor and seek medical attention.
- Call ahead before visiting your doctor.
- Separate yourself from other people and animals in your home.
- Avoid sharing personal household items.
- Wear a face mask.
- Cover your coughs and sneezes with your elbow.
- Wash your hands often, for at least 20 seconds.
- Clean all “high-touch” surfaces (phones, doorknobs, steering wheels, etc.) daily.
- Monitor your symptoms.
With these precautions if you contract COVID-19, it is also important to recognize misinformation taking footholds during the uncertainty of this crisis. Both the CDC and FEMA have responded to some of the most common misconceptions that have been circulating.
Facts About COVID-19 that the CDC is Emphasizing:
- Diseases can make anyone sick, regardless of their race or ethnicity.
- Some people are at increased risk of getting COVID-19. (Above 60 years of age and those with pre-existing conditions.)
- Someone who has completed quarantine or who has been released from isolation does not pose a risk of infection to other people.
- You can help stop COVID-19 by knowing the signs and symptoms.
- Using protective precautions to keep yourself and others safe is simple.
Visit the CDC website for the latest information: www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov.
Where the CDC is emphasizing information directly related to the disease outbreak, FEMA has had to rebut disease tangential misinformation. It is important to check your primary information sources credibility and to not assume secondary information sources are factual. During times of uncertainty, it’s more important than ever to verify the source of the information.
- Hantavirus is not a new disease. Transmission from one human to another may occur, but is extremely rare. It is primarily contracted through touching waste products of infected rodents. Visit https://www.cdc.gov/hantavirus for more information.
- There is no national lockdown. It is being determined at the state and local levels. The fifteen day shelter in place suggestion is to minimize exposure and prevent the continued spread of the disease. The latest information and resources are available at www.coronavirus.gov
- FEMA does not have military assets. Like all emergencies, response is most successful when it is locally executed, state managed and federally supported. Each state’s governor is responsible for response activities in their state, to include establishing curfews, deploying the National Guard if needed and any other restrictions or safety measures they deem necessary for the health and welfare of their citizens.
- Stockpiling groceries and supplies is not suggested. Food supplies are likely to spoil and you want to minimize chances of contact. Demand is high for grocery, household cleaning, and some healthcare products–stores need time to restock.
- The U.S. Government is not mailing checks in response to COVID-19 at this time. If you’re contacted about such a check, at the moment, it’s a scam. Keep an eye on the FTC website for more information about this and other common COVID-19 related scams.
- The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act has passed both the house and Senate and been signed by President Trump on March 27th. Both CNN and Fortune Magazine report that it could take five to six weeks for the federal government to cut checks and send them out. The $2 trillion package includes a provision to send checks directly to many Americans. The amount is based on annual income: individuals earning up to $75,000 and heads of household up to $112,500 will receive a $1,200 rebate from the federal government. Whereas, couples who earn up to $150,000 will receive $2,400. Above those income levels, the benefits are gradually reduced by $5 for every additional $100 income. This will be capped at $99,000 for individuals, $146,500 for heads of household, and $198,000 for couples. Parents are eligible for a $500 rebate per child.
With these foundational facts on the disease and clearing up tangential misinformation, it is also imperative to take precautions in the workplace to prevent spreading the virus. OSHA has issued guidelines on how to prepare workplaces for COVID-19. It focuses on the need for employers to implement engineering, administrative, and work practice controls and personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as considerations for doing so. Aside from safety compliance, the outbreak has affected which industries are still running and can affect the operations of those that are.
How COVID-19 Could Affect Workplaces
- Absenteeism. Workers could be absent for many reasons: they are sick; they are caregivers for sick family members; they are caregivers for children if schools or daycare centers are closed; they have family members to at-risk people at home, such as immunocompromised; they are afraid to come to work because of fear of possible exposure.
- Change in patterns of commerce. Consumer demand for items related to infection prevention (e.g., respirators) is likely to increase significantly, while consumer interest in other goods may decline. Consumers may also change shopping patterns because of a COVID-19 outbreak. Consumers may try to shop at off-peak hours to reduce contact with other people, show increased interest in home delivery services, or prefer other options, such as drive-through service, to reduce person-to-person contact.
- Interrupted supply/delivery. Shipments of items from geographic areas severely affected by COVID-19 may be delayed or cancelled with or without notification.
The OSHA COVID-19 webpage offers information specifically for workers and employers: www.osha.gov/covid-19.
Jobs and Exposure Risk
OSHA outlines the different job industries and their risk of exposure to the virus by very high, high, medium, and low exposure levels.
- Very high exposure risk jobs are those with high potential for exposure to known or suspected sources of COVID-19 during specific medical, postmortem, or laboratory procedures.
- High exposure risk jobs are often peripherally related to very high risk exposure jobs.
- Workers in the medium exposure risk category may be in contact with the general public (e.g., in schools, high-population-density work environments, and some high-volume retail settings).
- Low exposure risk groups do not require contact with people or are infrequently exposed to the general public.
OSHA also outlines five steps employers can take to responsibly prevent their workers from being exposed to COVID-19.
- Develop an Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response Plan
- Prepare to Implement Basic Infection Prevention Measures
- Develop Policies and Procedures for Prompt Identification and Isolation of Sick People, if Appropriate.
- Develop, Implement, and Communicate about Workplace Flexibilities and Protections
- Implement Workplace Controls
- Engineering Controls
- Administrative Controls
- Safe Work Practices
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Despite the pandemic, many industries are considered too critical to close, and must remain in operation during closures with limitations.
Federal Critical Infrastructure Sectors
The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency has comprehensively outlined the specific sectors that the Federal Government has deemed critical. Two such sectors are manufacturing, along with food and agriculture.
Critical Manufacturing Sectors
Critical Manufacturing Industries with Sub Industries
|Primary Metals Manufacturing||Iron/Steel Mills and FerroAlloy |
Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing
Nonferrous Metal Production and Processing
|Machinery Manufacturing||Engine and Turbine |
Power Transmission Equipment
Earth Moving, Mining, Agricultural, and Construction Equipment
|Electrical Equipment, Appliance, and Component Manufacturing||Electric Motor |
|Transportation Equipment Manufacturing||Vehicles and Commercial Ships |
Aerospace Products and Parts
Locomotives, Railroad and Transit Cars, and Rail Track Equipment
Products made by these industries are essential to many other critical infrastructure sectors. The Critical Manufacturing Sector focuses on the identification, assessment, prioritization, and protection of nationally significant manufacturing industries that may be susceptible to manmade and natural disasters. CISA has an existing plan from 2015. For more information, please contact the Sector-Specific Agency at email@example.com
Critical Food and Agriculture Sectors
Homeland Security has recognized Agriculture as a critical industry. As such, these closures do not apply to this sector. The Food and Agriculture Sector is almost entirely under private ownership and is composed of an estimated 2.1 million farms, 935,000 restaurants, and more than 200,000 registered food manufacturing, processing, and storage facilities. This sector accounts for roughly one-fifth of the nation’s economic activity.
The Food and Agriculture Sector is critically dependent on many sectors, but particularly with the following:
|Water and Wastewater Systems||Clean Irrigation and Processed Water|
|Transportation Systems||Movement of Products and Livestock|
|Energy||Power the Equipment Needed for: Agriculture Production and Food Processing|
|Chemical||Fertilizers and Pesticides Used in the Production of Crops|
The Department of Labor is administering new paid leave requirements effective through December 31, 2020. Each covered employer must post in a conspicuous place on its premises a notice of FFCRA requirements. Employers may not discharge, discipline, or otherwise discriminate against any employee who takes paid sick leave under the FFCRA and files a complaint or institutes a proceeding under or related to the FFCRA. Employers in violation of the first two weeks’ paid sick time or unlawful termination provisions of the FFCRA will be subject to the penalties and enforcement (Sections 16 and 17 of the Fair Labor Standards Act. 29 U.S.C. 216; 217.)
FCRA Coverage and Qualifying for Leave
|Certain public employers, and private employers with fewer than 500 employees.||Most Federal employees are not covered by these expanded provisions for family and medical leave, but are covered by paid sick leave. |
Small businesses with fewer than 50 employees may qualify for exemption.
Qualifying for Leave
|Up to 80 hours paid sick leave.||Paid sick leave equal to hours worked on average over a 2-week period.|
If Workers are Unable to Work or Telework Due to:
|1) Being subject to a Federal, State, or local quarantine or isolation order related to COVID-19;|
2) Being advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine related to COVID-19;
3) Experiencing COVID-19 symptoms and is seeking a medical diagnosis;
|Employees taking leave shall be paid at either their regular rate or the applicable minimum wage, whichever is higher, up to $511 per day and $5,110 in the aggregate (over a 2-week period).|
|4) Caring for an individual subject to an order described in (1) or self-quarantine as described in (2);|
5) Experiencing any other substantially-similar condition specified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretaries of Labor and Treasury; or.
|Employees taking leave shall be paid at 2/3 their regular rate or 2/3 the applicable minimum wage, whichever is higher, up to $200 per day and $2,000 in the aggregate (over a 2-week period).|
|6) Caring for a child whose school or place of care is closed (or child care provider is unavailable) for reasons related to COVID-19.,||Full-time employees are eligible for up to 12 weeks of leave at 40 hours a week|
Part-time employees are eligible for leave for the number of hours that the employee is normally scheduled to work over that period.
Employees taking leave shall be paid at 2/3 their regular rate or 2/3 the applicable minimum wage, whichever is higher, up to $200 per day and $12,000 in the aggregate (over a 12-week period—two weeks of paid sick leave followed by up to 10 weeks of paid expanded family and medical leave).
Assistance for Small Businesses During the Outbreak
Covered employers qualify for dollar-for-dollar reimbursement through tax credits for all qualifying wages paid under the FFCRA. Qualifying wages are those paid to an employee who takes leave under the Act for a qualifying reason, up to the appropriate per diem and aggregate payment caps. Applicable tax credits also extend to amounts paid or incurred to maintain health insurance coverage. For more information, please see the Department of the Treasury’s website.
Opportunities and resources for emergency funding outside of these tax credits are available through the CalAsian Chamber of Commerce (CACC). Their Business Triage Center has a dedicated team to help small businesses get access to capital by packaging their loans and providing credit enhancement services, supporting applications to Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Disaster Loans and the IBank’s Small Business Disaster Relief Loan Guarantee Program. They can also help direct applicants to one of their various lending institution partners. Additionally, the CACC created a survey to determine how to best assist small businesses statewide. Your input will better enable them to prioritize your business needs during these uncertain times.
The U.S. SBA is offering low-interest federal disaster loans for working capital to small businesses in designated states or territories suffering substantial economic injury as a result of the Coronavirus (COVID-19). SBA Disaster Loans are limited to federally declared disaster states or territories. Therefore, your State or Territory may not yet be eligible for assistance. However as of March 17, 2020 they have issued revised criteria that makes more businesses eligible for the loans.
Under newly revised criteria
- States or territories are only required to certify that at least five small businesses within the state/territory have suffered substantial economic injury, regardless of where those businesses are located.
- Disaster assistance loans will be available statewide following an economic injury declaration. This will apply to current and future disaster assistance declarations related to Coronavirus.
As of March 20, 2020, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, five territories and one tribe are working directly with FEMA under the Nationwide Emergency Declaration for COVID-19.
The USDA extended the application deadline for the Rural Business Development Grant (RBDG) program and the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) to no later than April 15, 2020. Contact the Rural Development office for the RBDG deadline in your state. For additional information on the REAP deadline, see page 16925 of the March 25, 2020, Federal Register.
Knowing the symptoms and preventative measures is only the start. Businesses must take responsibility for their employees’ health by adapting their daily operations, and are required to provide sick leave when prevention is not enough. In light of these responsibilities, business owners are not without help: the Federal government will be providing tax breaks to employers for those companies impacted by the outbreak and Chambers of Commerce, like CalAsian Chamber of Commerce, are providing assistance in acquiring additional funding. Be sure to visit our website wcismag.com and social media to read real-time updates to this article, curated content from other industry information leaders, and share how COVID-19 is affecting your business.
Be sure to contact CACC or your local SBA office to see what assistance your company may qualify for. Email CACC with “COVID-19 IMPACT – Technical Assistance Needed” in the subject line. Cha Xiong: 916-389-7489, firstname.lastname@example.org; Linda Thor: 916-389-7478, email@example.com